Day: 10月 27, 2022

Every portfolio can be partitioned into multiple asset groups defined by asset classes, sectors, styles, or other features. A cardinality-constrained portfolio caps the number of stocks to be traded within each of these groups. These limitations arise from real-world scenarios faced by fund managers who seek to satisfy certain investment mandates or achieve their asset allocation objectives.
Gold is often viewed as a safe haven asset or a hedge against market turmoils, currency depreciation, and other economic or political events. For instance, during the credit crisis, the Dow and S&P 500 declined by about 20% while gold prices rose from $850 to $1,100 per troy ounce. And then this year, S&P500 has experienced a sharp drop before returning to pre-COVID level lately. Meanwhile, gold ETF (GLD) has gained more than 25% since Feb 2020.